Developmental therapies in this section include Relationship Development Intervention (RDI), Floortime/DIR, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), The Son-Rise Program, SCERTS, Computer Software Programs, Apps for Tablets.
Apps for Tablets
There are hundreds of apps for tablets (iPad, iPhone, iPod touch, and Android) for autism spectrum disorders. Go to apps on your tablet or phone and search autism.
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
According to the National Association of Cognitive Behavioral Therapists, Cognitive-behavioral therapy does not exist as a distinct therapeutic technique. The term "cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)" is a very general term for a classification of therapies with similarities. There are several approaches to cognitive-behavioral therapy, including Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, Rational Behavior Therapy, Rational Living Therapy, Cognitive Therapy, and Dialectic Behavior Therapy. However, most cognitive-behavioral therapies have the following characteristics:
CBT is based on the Cognitive Model of Emotional Response.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy is based on the idea that our thoughts cause our feelings and behaviors, not external things, like people, situations, and events. The benefit of this fact is that we can change the way we think to feel / act better even if the situation does not change. Brief report: effects of cognitive behavioral therapy on parent-reported autism symptoms in school-age children with high-functioning autism.
Computer Software programs
There are many programs specifically designed for autism spectrum disorders. They are used for additional educational intervention.
Floortime™ (or DIRFloortime™) is a specific technique to both follow the child’s natural emotional interests (lead) and at the same time challenge the child towards greater and greater mastery of the social, emotional, and intellectual capacities. With young children these playful interactions may occur on the floor, but go on to include conversations and interactions in other places. DIRFloortime™ emphasizes the critical role of parents and other family members because of the importance of their emotional relationships with the child. The DIR® Model, however, is a comprehensive framework which enables clinicians, parents and educators to construct a program tailored to the child’s unique challenges and strengths. Central to the DIR® Model is the role of the child’s natural emotions and interests which has been shown to be essential for learning interactions that enable the different parts of the mind and brain to work together and build successively higher levels of social, emotional, and intellectual capacities. It often includes, in addition to Floortime™, various problem-solving exercises and typically involves a team approach with speech therapy, occupational therapy, educational programs, mental health (developmental-psychological) intervention and, where appropriate, augmentative and biomedical intervention.
Relationship Development Intervention (RDI)
Developed by Dr. Steven Gutstein and Dr. Rachelle Sheely, relationship development intervention is a parent-based model program that provides a means for individuals with autism and asperger disorder to learn about and experience authentic emotional relationships in a gradual, systematic way. The enjoyable activities in this program emphasize foundation skills such as social referencing, regulating behavior, conversational reciprocity and synchronized actions.
SCERTS® is an innovative educational model for working with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their families. It provides specific guidelines for helping a child become a competent and confident social communicator, while preventing problem behaviors that interfere with learning and the development of relationships. It also is designed to help families, educators and therapists work cooperatively as a team, in a carefully coordinated manner, to maximize progress in supporting a child. The acronym “SCERTS” refers to the focus on: “SC” - Social Communication – the development of spontaneous, functional communication, emotional expression, and secure and trusting relationships with children and adults; “ER” - Emotional Regulation - the development of the ability to maintain a well-regulated emotional state to cope with everyday stress, and to be most available for learning and interacting; “TS” – Transactional Support – the development and implementation of supports to help partners respond to the child’s needs and interests, modify and adapt the environment, and provide tools to enhance learning (e.g., picture communication, written schedules, and sensory supports). Specific plans are also developed to provide educational and emotional support to families, and to foster teamwork among professionals.
The Son-Rise Program
The Son-Rise Program Start-Up is a 5-day group training program for parents, relatives and professionals looking to facilitate meaningful progress in their children (ages 18 months through 60 years) challenged by Autism, Autism Spectrum Disorders, Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD), Asperger's Syndrome, High Functioning Autism and other related developmental difficulties. Exciting, inspiring and diverse presentations by a group of seasoned and dedicated teachers, will deliver to you the autism strategies, expertise, motivation and knowledge honed through years of working with thousands of families and children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. At the end of this course, you will have all the tools necessary to design and implement your own home-based Son-Rise Program, as well as the skills and attitude to impact your child’s growth in all areas of learning, communication, development and skill acquisition.
Autism is defined behaviorally, as a syndrome of abnormalities involving language, social reciprocity and hyperfocus or reduced behavioral flexibility. It is clearly heterogeneous, and it can be accompanied by unusual talents as well as impairments, but its underlying biological and genetic basis is unknown. Autism has been modeled as a brain-based, strongly genetic disorder, but emerging findings and hypotheses support a broader model of the condition as genetically influenced and systemic.
According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, the diagnostic category of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) refers to a group of disorders characterized by delays in the development of socialization and communication skills.
According to the Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, "There is compelling evidence that intensive behavioral therapy, beginning before age three years of age and targeted toward speech and language development, is successful in improving capacity and later social functioning."
"Throughout this [USAAA] conference, it is our hope that you'll find a balance of concepts and pragmatics, from current protocols to research, including medical/biomedical, developmental, and behavioral realms, right down to tools that you can use immediately to begin or add to those needed for your journey." — Phillip C. DeMio, MD, parent, USAAA Chief Medical Officer (comments during a recent USAAA conference on the availability of interventions and therapies and balancing the many options during your "journey".